20 noviembre 2006

Cochranella puyoensis: Taxonomy&Conservation


Review of the taxonomy and conservation status of the Ecuadorian Glassfrog Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae)

The Glassfrog Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid is a taxon known only from the female holotype, and recently placed in the genus Centrolene due to its supposed close relationship with Centrolene mariae (Duellman & Toft). Herein we report new material of puyoensis, including adult male specimens previously unknown. We propose the new combination Cochranella puyoensis (Flores & McDiarmid) n. comb., in recognition of the state of the humeral crista ventralis in males of this species, which lack a humeral spine. The hypothesis of relationships between three species, including puyoensis, proposed as the mariae species-group is questioned as it was based on phenetic rather than derived characters. We present new data that extend the distributional range of Cochranella puyoensis, and define its range along the Foothill Evergreen forests from 400 m to 1000 m above sea level in the provinces of Napo, Orellana, and Pastaza. New data presented herein also permit a re-evaluation of the conservation status of the species, previously classified under the IUCN category of Critically Endangered. We recommend that Cochranella puyoensis be reclassified as “Endangered”: EN B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii); based on a better understanding of the presence of the species, its occupancy area, number of known localities, and habitat quality status.

Cita / Citation: Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. & R. W. McDiarmid. Review of the taxonomy and conservation status of the Ecuadorian Glassfrog Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae). Zootaxa 1361: 21-31.

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07 noviembre 2006

Salamandras de Ecuador - Bolitoglossa


Amphibia: Caudata: Plethodontidae: Bolitoglossa equatoriana and Bolitoglossa biseriata: range extensions, new provincial records from Ecuador, and natural history

Abstract: New information on the salamanders from Ecuador, including new provincial records for Bolitoglossa equatoriana, the second reports from Ecuador for Bolitoglossa biseriata, and notes on its natural history.

Resumen: Nueva información sobre las salamandras de Ecuador, incluyendo nuevos registros provinciales para Bolitoglossa equatoriana, el segundo reporte para Ecuador de Bolitoglossa biseriata y notas sobre su historia natural.

Cita / Citation: Amphibia: Caudata: Plethodontidae: Bolitoglossa equatoriana and Bolitoglossa biseriata: range extensions, new provincial records from Ecuador, and natural history . Check List 2(3): 64-67.

Descargar / Download: http://www.cisneros-heredia.org/public.html

21 agosto 2006

Bothrocophias of Ecuador


Distribution and natural history of the Ecuadorian Toad-headed Pitvipers of the genus Bothrocophias (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae)

Abstract: Limited information is available for pitvipers of the genus Bothrocophias. This article presents information on the three species of Bothrocophias known to occur in Ecuador: Bothrocophias campbelli (FREIRE LASCANO, 1991), B. hyoprora (AMARAL, 1935), and B. microphthalmus (COPE, 1875), including geographical distribution, altitudinal range, provincial records, sympatric pitviper species, activity patterns, behavior, size, reproductive biology, diet, and longevity. Bothrocophias campbelli inhabits the northern, central and southern regions of the Pacific slopes of the Andes in Ecuador between 800 and 2000 m; Bothrocophias hyoprora occurs in the northern and southern Amazonian lowlands and low eastern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador between 210 and 1500 m; Bothrocophias microphthalmus occurs in the south-eastern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador between 600 and 2350 m. We report the second known locality of B. campbelli in the province of Imbabura and the westernmost locality of B. hyoprora in the Nangaritza river valley. The sympatry between B. hyoprora and B. microphthalmus is confirmed, at the Makuma area, province of Morona-Santiago, increasing the vertical distribution range of B. microphthalmus to at least 600 m. The White-bellied Slender Mouse Opossum Marmosops noctivagus is reported for the first time as a prey of B. microphthalmus. We herein report some novel data on the reproductive biology of Bothrocophias pitvipers, including litter and neonates sizes for B. hyoprora and B. microphthalmus. Bothrocophias pitvipers can produce up to 47 enlarged follicles and known litter sizes range from three to 36 young. Enlarged ovarian follicles have been reported in April for B. campbelli, juveniles in December for B. microphthalmus and from August to September for B. hyoprora. The relative clutch mass values in Bothrocophias ranged from 0.22 (in B. microphthalmus) to 0.30 (in B. hyoprora).

Resumen: Limitada información se ha publicado sobre las serpientes venenosas del género Bothrocophias. Este artículo presenta información para las tres especies de Bothrocophias que habitan en Ecuador: Bothrocophias campbelli (FREIRE LASCANO, 1991), B. hyoprora (AMARAL, 1935), y B. microphthalmus (COPE, 1875); incluyendo datos sobre su distribución geográfica, rango altitudinal, registros provinciales, especies en simpatría, patrones de actividad, comportamiento, tamaño, biología reproductiva, dieta y longevidad. Bothrocophias campbelli habita las regiones norte, central y sur de la vertiente Pacífica de Ecuador entre 800 y 2000 m, B. hyoprora habita las regiones norte y sur de las tierras bajas de la Amazonía y vertientes bajas de la Cordillera Oriental entre 210 y 1500 m; y B. microphthalmus habita en las vertientes sureste de la Cordillera Oriental entre 600 y 2350 m. Se reporta la segunda localidad conocida para B. campbelli en la provincia de Imbabura y la localidad más occidental de B. hyoprora en el valle del Río Nangaritza. Se confirma la simpatría de B. hyoprora y B. microphthalmus en el área de Makuma, provincia de Morona-Santiago, incrementando el rango de distribución vertical de B. microphthalmus hasta al menos 600 m. La Raposa Chica de Vientre Blanco Marmosops noctivagus es reportada por primera vez como presa de B. microphthalmus. Se reporta nueva información sobre la biología reproductiva de Bothrocophias, incluyendo el tamaño de la camada y de los neonatos de B. hyoprora y B. microphthalmus. Las serpientes Bothrocophias pueden producir hasta 47 foliculos agrandados y el rango conocido del tamaño de las camadas incluye entre 3 a 36 individuos. Foliculos agrandados en el ovario han sido reportados en Abril para B. campbelli, y juveniles en Diciembre para B. microphthalmus y entre Agosto y Septiembre para B. hyoprora. Los valores de la masa relativa de la puesta en Bothrocophias varian entre 0.22 (en B. microphthalmus) hasta 0.30 (en B. hyoprora).

Cita / Citation: Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. (2006) Distribution and natural history of the Ecuadorian Toad-headed Pitvipers o the genus Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Herpetozoa 19(1/2): 17-26.

Descargar / Download: http://www.cisneros-heredia.org/public.html

17 agosto 2006

Phylogeny Dart-Poison Frogs



Cita / Citation: Grant, Taran, Frost, D.R., Caldwell, J.P., Gagliardo, R., Haddad, C.F.B, Kok, P.J.R., Means, D.B., Noonan, B.P., Schargel, W.E. & Wheeler, W. 2006. Phylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Amphibia, Athesphatanura, Dendrobatidae). BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 299: 262 pp., 79 figures, 37 tables, 8 appendices.

Descargar / Download: http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/handle/2246/5781

ABSTRACT: "The known diversity of dart-poison frog species has grown from 70 in the 1960s to 247 at present, with no sign that the discovery of new species will wane in the foreseeable future. Although this growth in knowledge of the diversity of this group has been accompanied by detailed investigations of many aspects of the biology of dendrobatids, their phylogenetic relationships remain poorly understood. This study was designed to test hypotheses of dendrobatid diversification by combining new and prior genotypic and phenotypic evidence in a total evidence analysis. DNA sequences were sampled for five mitochondrial and six nuclear loci (approximately 6,100 base pairs [bp]; x¯53,740 bp per terminal; total dataset composed of approximately 1.55 million bp), and 174 phenotypic characters were scored from adult and larval morphology, alkaloid profiles, and behavior. These data were combined with relevant published DNA sequences. Ingroup sampling targeted several previously unsampled species, including Aromobates nocturnus, which was hypothesized previously to be the sister of all other dendrobatids. Undescribed and problematic species were sampled from multiple localities when possible. The final dataset consisted of 414 terminals: 367 ingroup terminals of 156 species and 47 outgroup terminals of 46 species.

Direct optimization parsimony analysis of the equally weighted evidence resulted in 25,872 optimal trees. Forty nodes collapse in the strict consensus, with all conflict restricted to conspecific terminals. Dendrobatids were recovered as monophyletic, and their sister group consisted of Crossodactylus, Hylodes, and Megaelosia, recognized herein as Hylodidae. Among outgroup taxa, Centrolenidae was found to be the sister group of all athesphatanurans except Hylidae, Leptodactyidae was polyphyletic, Thoropa was nested within Cycloramphidae, and Ceratophryinae was paraphyletic with respect to Telmatobiinae. Among dendrobatids, the monophyly and content of Mannophryne and Phyllobates were corroborated. Aromobates nocturnus and Colostethus saltuensis were found to be nested within Nephelobates, and Minyobates was paraphyletic and nested within Dendrobates. Colostethus was shown to be rampantly nonmonophyletic, with most species falling into two unrelated cis- and trans-Andean clades. A morphologically and behaviorally diverse clade of median lingual process-possessing species was discovered.

In light of these findings and the growth in knowledge of the diversity of this large clade over the past 40 years, we propose a new, monophyletic taxonomy for dendrobatids, recognizing the inclusive clade as a superfamily (Dendrobatoidea) composed of two families (one of which is new), six subfamilies (three new), and 16 genera (four new). Although poisonous frogs did not form a monophyletic group, the three poisonous lineages are all confined to the revised family Dendrobatidae, in keeping with the traditional application of this name. We also propose changes to achieve a monophyletic higher-level taxonomy for the athesphatanuran outgroup taxa.

Analysis of character evolution revealed multiple origins of phytotelm-breeding, parental provisioning of nutritive oocytes for larval consumption (larval oophagy), and endotrophy. Available evidence indicates that transport of tadpoles on the dorsum of parent nurse frogs— a dendrobatid synapomorphy—is carried out primitively by male nurse frogs, with three independent origins of female transport and five independent origins of biparental transport. Reproductive amplexus is optimally explained as having been lost in the most recent common ancestor of Dendrobatoidea, with cephalic amplexus arising independently three times."

09 agosto 2006

Glassfrogs of Yanayacu


Glass frogs (Centrolenidae) of Yanayacu Biological Station, Ecuador, with the description of a new species and comments on centrolenid systematics

Abstract: We describe Centrolene bacatum, C. buckleyi, Cochranella posadae, and a new species of Cochranella from Yanayacu Biological Station on the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. The new species differs from other species in Centrolenidae by a combination of characters, including reduced webbing between Fingers III and IV, and kidneys covered with white peritoneum. We summarize the current generic and infrageneric classification in Centrolenidae and discuss some of its problems. A phylogenetic analysis of morphological and behavioural data shows that the genera Centrolene and Cochranella might not be monophyletic; the genus Hyalinobatrachium and, in particular, the group H. fleischmanni seem to be monophyletic. However, an analysis with many more characters is needed to resolve the relationships of glass frogs.

Cita / Citation: Guayasamin, J.M., M.R. Bustamante, D. Almeida-Reinoso W.C. Funk. 2006. Glass frogs (Centrolenidae) of Yanayacu Biological Station, Ecuador, with the description of a new species and comments on centrolenid systematics. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 147, 489–513.

Descargar / Download: http://www.puce.edu.ec/zoologia/vertebrados/personal/colaboradores/jmguayasamin/index.html

03 agosto 2006

Eleutherodactylus skymainos Ecuador


Amphibia, Brachycephalidae, Eleutherodactylus skydmainos: First country record, Ecuador

Se reporta el primer registro de la rana Eleutherodactylus skydmainos para Ecuador. Dos ejemplares colectados en la Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini, Amazonia de Ecuador, confirman este hallazgo. Este nuevo registro incrementa el numero de especies de Eleutherodactylus en Ecuador a 139, y a 24 para la Amazonia Ecuatoriana.

Cita / Citation: Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. (2006) Amphibia, Brachycephalidae, Eleutherodactylus skydmainos: First country record, Ecuador. Check List 2(2): 47-49.

Descargar / Download: http://www.cisneros-heredia.org/public.html

28 julio 2006

Aves de Ecuador - Distribucion


Información sobre la distribución de algunas especies de aves de Ecuador

Se presenta información sobre nuevos registros, confirmaciones de la ampliación de rangos de distribución o movimientos altitudinales para 14 especies de aves de Ecuador: Cairina moschata, Netta erythrophthalma, Leucopternis semiplumbeus, Forpus coelestis, Crotophaga sulcirostris, Eriocnemis mosquera, Furnarius cinnamomeus, Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii, Phlegopsis nigromaculata, Querula purpurata, Cyclarhis gujanensis, Progne subis, Haplospiza rustica y Carduelis olivacea. Se discuten los diferentes registros y su importancia respecto al conocimiento de las aves de Ecuador.

Palabras clave: Ampliación de rangos, aves de ecuador, nuevos registros.

Cita / Citation: Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. Informacion sobre la distribucion de algunas especies de aves de Ecuador. Boletin SAO XVI (1): 7-16.

Descargar / Download: http://www.cisneros-heredia.org/public.html

28 junio 2006

Leptodactylus Ecology and Ecuador Biogeography


Distribution and Ecology of the Western Ecuador Frog Leptodactylus labrosus (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae)

Leptodactylus labrosus is a terrestrial sit-and-wait predator; its diet includes ground-level, fossorial, and flying insects, and ants numerically predominate. Bothrops asper is recorded as a predator of L. labrosus. L. labrosus lives mainly in deciduous and semi-deciduous forests, where it is restricted to wet microhabitats, and occasionally in evergreen forests. L. labrosus inhabits northern, central, and southern regions of western coastal Ecuador and northern and central western coastal Peru up to 700 m, and into the dry interandean valleys of southern Ecuador and northern Peru up to 1 300 m. Its distribution encompasses moistly seasonally dry forest in coastal Ecuador and Peru. It also occupies moister areas towards the slopes of the Andes where it is sympatric with three other congeneric species, but at sites of sympatry the species show habitat segregation. The distribution pattern of L. labrosus is shared by several other range-restricted amphibians corresponding to the Tumbesian region, which should be recognized as an endemic Amphibian area. The zone between the Choco and Tumbesian regions, where L. labrosus gets in sympatry with other Leptodactylus species, possess ecological and climatic characteristics that have shaped a unique fauna, including several endemic taxa; and it should be recognized as the west Ecuadorian endemic region.

Cita / Citation: CCisneros-Heredia, D. F. 2006. Distribution and ecology of the Western Ecuador frog Leptodactylus labrosus (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae). Zoological Research 27 (3): 225-234.

Descargar / Download: http://www.cisneros-heredia.org/publicaciones/2006Llabrosus.html

26 junio 2006

New Glassfrog species from Ecuador


A new species of the genus Centrolene (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae) from Ecuador with comments on the taxonomy and biogeography of Glassfrogs

We describe a new species of Glassfrog, Centrolene mariaelenae n. sp., from the Contrafuerte de Tzunantza, southeastern Ecuador. The new species is assigned to the Centrolene gorzulai species group, a clade previously known only from the Guayana Shield region, because the parietal peritoneum is transparent and the hepatic peritoneum is covered by guanophores. We analyze the diversity patterns of Glassfrogs from eastern Ecuador. The distribution of the new species herein described supports previous hypothesis of a biogeographical connection between the Andes and the Guayana Shield for various groups of plants and animals; particularly a relationship between the Guayana Shield and the sandstone outcrops mountain ranges of southeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. We also comment on the infrageneric and generic classification of Glassfrogs, and propose the new combinations Centrolene balionotum n. comb., Cochranella antisthenesi n. comb, and Cochranella pulverata n. comb.

Cita / Citation: Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. & R. W. McDiarmid. A new species of the genus Centrolene (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae) from Ecuador with comments on the taxonomy and biogeography of Glassfrogs. Zootaxa 1244: 1-32.

Descargar / Download: http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2006f/z01244p032f.pdf

24 junio 2006

Breeding notes birds Ecuador


Notes on breeding, behaviour and distribution of some birds in Ecuador

Novel data on the breeding biology, behaviour and distribution of 48 taxa, including several species considered rare or globally/nationally threatened by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001), Granizo et al. (2002) or BirdLife International (2004).

Main accounts of: COMMON PIPING-GUAN Aburria pipile, DARK-BACKED WOOD-QUAIL Odontophorus melanonotus, PIED-BILLED GREBE Podilymbus podiceps, MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD Fregata magnificens, AMERICAN KESTREL Falco sparverius, ANDEAN / SLATE-COLOURED COOT Fulica ardesiaca, BARN OWL Tyto alba, SAND-COLOURED NIGHTHAWK Chordeiles rupestris, WHITE-TIPPED SWIFT Aeronautes montivagus, STRIPE-THROATED HERMIT Phaethornis striigularis, LITTLE WOODSTAR Chaetocercus bombus, AMAZONIAN WHITE-TAILED TROGON Trogon viridis, RED-HEADED BARBET Eubucco bourcierii, LINE-CHEEKED SPINETAIL Cranioleuca antisiensis, GOLDEN-FACED TYRANNULET Zimmerius chrysops, YELLOW-BROWED TODY-FLYCATCHER Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum, CHESTNUT-COLLARED SWALLOW Petrochelidon rufocollaris, WHITE-CAPPED DIPPER Cinclus leucocephalus, CASQUED OROPENDOLA Clypicterus oseryi, LESSER GOLDFINCH Carduelis psaltria, ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA Euphonia xanthogaster.

Notes for: Andean Guan Penelope montagnii, Rufescent Tiger-heron Tigrisoma lineatum, Andean Condor Vultur gryphus, White Hawk Leucopternis albicollis, Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata, Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna, Hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin, Great Potoo Nyctibius grandis, Rufous Potoo N. bracteatus, Golden-headed Quetzal Pharomachrus auriceps, Pacific Hornero Furnarius cinnamomeus, Blackish Tapaculo Scytalopus latrans, Tufted Tittyrant Anairetes parulus, Tumbesian Tyrannulet Phaeomyias tumbezana, White-tailed Shrike-tyrant Agriornis andicola, Masked Water-tyrant Fluvicola nengeta, Black-crowned Tityra Tityra inquisitor, White-thighed Swallow Neochelidon tibialis, Great Thrush
Turdus fuscater, Hooded Mountain-tanager Buthraupis montana, Cinereous Conebill Conirostrum cinereum, Titlike Dacnis Xenodacnis parina, Glossy Flowerpiercer Diglossa lafresnayii, Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola, Yellow-breasted / Rufous-naped Brush-finch Atlapetes latinuchus, Russet-crowned Warbler Basileuterus coronatus, Hooded Siskin Carduelis magellanica.

Descargar / Download: http://www.cisneros-heredia.org/pdfs/2006_ReprodBirds.pdf

12 junio 2006

New Eleutherodactylus from Amazonian Ecuador


A new species of frog of the Eleutherodactylus lacrimosus assemblage (Leptodactylidae) from the Western Amazon basin, with comments on the utility of canopy surveys in lowland rainforest

Abstract. We describe a new species of Eleutherodactylus from the lowlands of the western Amazon Basin. The new species is referred to the Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group, lacrimosus assemblage. It differs from other members of the group by having a dorsal olive-green coloration with an interorbital creamy yellow stripe that extends posterolaterally and reaches the level of the sacrum, and low ulnar and tarsal tubercles. The new species inhabits western Amazon tropical rainforests and has been found in arboreal bromeliads by day and on vegetation by night. We discuss the effect of lack of sampling in the forest canopy in our understanding of tropical amphibian communities. Based on work conducted at two localities in Ecuadorian Amazonia, we find that even limited sampling effort in the canopy can greatly improve efficiency of biological inventories.

Cita / Citation: Guaysamin, J. M., S. R. Ron, D. F. Cisneros-Heredia, W. Lamar & S. F. McCracken. 2006. A new species of frog of the Eleutherodactylus lacrimosus assemblage (Leptodactylidae) from the Western Amazon basin, with comments on the utility of canopy surveys in lowland rainforest. Herpetologica 62(2): 191-202.

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22 mayo 2006

Amphibians of the Machalilla National Park, province of Manabí, western Ecuador


Amphibians, Machalilla National Park, province of Manabí, western Ecuador

Abstract. Fifteen species of amphibians are reported from the Machalilla National Park, located in coastal western Ecuador. Scinax quinquefasciatus, Trachycephalus venulosus, and Leptodactylus ventrimaculatus are reported from the area for the first time. Several amphibian species are rangerestricted and endemic. The amphibian fauna of this national park is related to the Tumbesian endemic region. Updated information is presented for Ceratophrys stolzmanni and Leptodactylus ventrimaculatus.

Anfibios del Parque Nacional Machalilla, provincia de Manabí, Ecuador. Quince especies de anfibios son reportados para el Parque Nacional Machalilla, localizado en la costa de Ecuador. Scinax quinquefasciatus, Trachycephalus venulosus y Leptodactylus ventrimaculatus son reportados para el área por primera vez. Varias especies de anfibios del parque tienen rangos de distribución restringidos o están en peligro de extinción. La fauna anfibios de este parque nacional esta relacionada con la zona de endemismo Tumbesina. Se presenta información actualizada para Ceratophrys stolzmanni y Leptodactylus ventrimaculatus.

Cita / Citation: Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. 2006. Amphibians, Machalilla National Park, province of Manabí, western Ecuador. Check List 2(1): 45-54.

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07 abril 2006

Biblioteca En Linea CNAH (The Center for North American Herpetology)


Biblioteca En Linea del CNAH
(The Center for North American Herpetology)

The Center for North American Herpetology (CNAH) se complace en anunciar que hay 443 titulos de más de 50 revistas científicas disponibles para ser descargados gratis desde la Biblioteca En Linea del CNAH. La lista se puede buscar por autor, año, revista o tema. Los usuarios pueden leer los articulos usando Adobe Reader. Los artículos incluidos tratan básicamente sobre la herpetofauna de América del Norte (al norte de Mexico); sin embargo, incluye trabajos de relevancia para el resto de América.

Se puede acceder a la Biblioteca En Linea del CNAH a través de:

Campaña conservacion Loro Orejiamarillo y la Palma de Ramos

AVES: distribution extensions, filling gaps, historical occurrence


AVES, Podilymbus podiceps, Ardea alba, Egretta thula, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ixobrychus exilis, Porzana carolina, Porphyrula martinica, Gallinula chloropus, Phalaropus tricolor, Vanellus resplendens: distribution extensions, filling gaps, historical occurrence.

Cita / Citation: Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. Aves, Podilymbus podiceps, Ardea alba, Egretta thula, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ixobrychus exilis, Porzana carolina, Porphyrula martinica, Gallinula chloropus, Phalaropus tricolor, Vanellus resplendens: distribution extensions, filling gaps, historical occurrence. Check List 2(1): 27-31.

Descargar / Download: http://www.rc.unesp.br/ib/checklist/articles%5CNGD004-05ms.pdf

AMPHIBIA, CENTROLENIDAE: range extensions and new country records


AMPHIBIA, CENTROLENIDAE, Centrolene ilex, Centrolene litorale, Centrolene medemi, Cochranella albomaculata, Cochranella ametarsia: range extensions and new country records.

Cita / Citation: Guayasamin, J. M., D. F. Cisneros-Heredia, M. Yánez-Muñoz, M. Bustamante. Amphibia, Centrolenidae, Centrolene ilex, Centrolene litorale, Centrolene medemi, Cochranella albomaculata, Cochranella ametarsia: range extensions and new country records. Check List 2(1): 24-26.

Descargar / Download: http://www.rc.unesp.br/ib/checklist/articles\NGD003-06ms.pdf




Cita / Citation: Frost, Darrel R., Grant, Taran, Faivovich, Julián, Bain, Raoul H., Raxworthy, Christopher J., & Wheeler, Ward. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 297: 370 pp., 71 figures, 5 tables, 7 appendices.

Descargar / Download: http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/handle/2246/5781

ABSTRACT: The evidentiary basis of the currently accepted classification of living amphibians is discussed and shown not to warrant the degree of authority conferred on it by use and tradition. A new taxonomy of living amphibians is proposed to correct the deficiencies of the old one. This new taxonomy is based on the largest phylogenetic analysis of living Amphibia so far accomplished. We combined the comparative anatomical character evidence of Haas (2003) with DNA sequences from the mitochondrial transcription unit H1 (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA and tRNA[superscript Valine] genes, [approximately equal to] 2,400 bp of mitochondrial sequences) and the nuclear genes histone H3, rhodopsin, tyrosinase, and seven in absentia, and the large ribosomal subunit 28S ([approximately equal to] 2,300 bp of nuclear sequences; ca. 1.8 million base pairs; x [arithmetic mean] = 3.7 kb/terminal). The dataset includes 532 terminals sampled from 522 species representative of the global diversity of amphibians as well as seven of the closest living relatives of amphibians for outgroup comparisons. The primary purpose of our taxon sampling strategy was to provide strong tests of the monophyly of all 'family-group' taxa. All currently recognized nominal families and subfamilies were sampled, with the exception of Protohynobiinae (Hynobiidae). Many of the currently recognized genera were also sampled. Although we discuss the monophyly of genera, and provide remedies for nonmonophyly where possible, we also make recommendations for future research. A parsimony analysis was performed under Direct Optimization, which simultaneously optimizes nucleotide homology (alignment) and tree costs, using the same set of assumptions throughout the analysis. Multiple search algorithms were run in the program POY over a period of seven months of computing time on the AMNH Parallel Computing Cluster. Results demonstrate that the following major taxonomic groups, as currently recognized, are nonmonophyletic: Ichthyophiidae (paraphyletic with respect to Uraeotyphlidae), Caeciliidae (paraphyletic with respect to Typhlonectidae and Scolecomorphidae), Salamandroidea (paraphyletic with respect to Sirenidae), Leiopelmatanura (paraphyletic with respect to Ascaphidae), Discoglossanura (paraphyletic with respect to Bombinatoridae), Mesobatrachia (paraphyletic with respect to Neobatrachia), Pipanura (paraphyletic with respect to Bombinatoridae and Discoglossidae/Alytidae), Hyloidea (in the sense of containing Heleophrynidae; paraphyletic with respect to Ranoidea), Leptodactylidae (polyphyletic, with Batrachophrynidae forming the sister taxon of Myobatrachidae + Limnodynastidae, and broadly paraphyletic with respect to Hemiphractinae, Rhinodermatidae, Hylidae, Allophrynidae, Centrolenidae, Brachycephalidae, Dendrobatidae, and Bufonidae), Microhylidae (polyphyletic, with Brevicipitinae being the sister taxon of Hemisotidae), Microhylinae (poly/paraphyletic with respect to the remaining non-brevicipitine microhylids), Hyperoliidae (para/polyphyletic, with Leptopelinae forming the sister taxon of Arthroleptidae + Astylosternidae), Astylosternidae (paraphyletic with respect to Arthroleptinae), Ranidae (paraphyletic with respect to Rhacophoridae and Mantellidae). In addition, many subsidiary taxa are demonstrated to be nonmonophyletic, such as (1) Eleutherodactylus with respect to Brachycephalus; (2) Rana (sensu Dubois, 1992), which is polyphyletic, with various elements falling far from each other on the tree; and (3) Bufo, with respect to several nominal bufonid genera. A new taxonomy of living amphibians is proposed, and the evidence for this is presented to promote further investigation and data acquisition bearing on the evolutionary history of amphibians. The taxonomy provided is consistent with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999). Salient features of the new taxonomy are (1) the three major groups of living amphibians, caecilians/Gymnophiona, salamanders/Caudata, and frogs/Anura, form a monophyletic group, to which we restrict the name Amphibia; (2) Gymnophiona forms the sister taxon of Batrachia (salamanders + frogs) and is composed of two groups, Rhinatrematidae and Stegokrotaphia; (3) Stegokrotaphia is composed of two families, Ichthyophiidae (including Uraeotyphlidae) and Caeciliidae (including Scolecomorphidae and Typhlonectidae, which are regarded as subfamilies); (4) Batrachia is a highly corroborated monophyletic group, composed of two taxa, Caudata (salamanders) and Anura (frogs); (5) Caudata is composed of two taxa, Cryptobranchoidei (Cryptobranchidae and Hynobiidae) and Diadectosalamandroidei new taxon (all other salamanders); (6) Diadectosalamandroidei is composed of two taxa, Hydatinosalamandroidei new taxon (composed of Perennibranchia and Treptobranchia new taxon) and Plethosalamandroidei new taxon; (7) Perennibranchia is composed of Proteidae and Sirenidae; (8) Treptobranchia new taxon is composed of two taxa, Ambystomatidae (including Dicamptodontidae) and Salamandridae; (9) Plethosalamandroidei new taxon is composed of Rhyacotritonidae and Xenosalamandroidei new taxon; (10) Xenosalamandroidei is composed of Plethodontidae and Amphiumidae; (11) Anura is monophyletic and composed of two clades, Leiopelmatidae (including Ascaphidae) and Lalagobatrachia new taxon (all other frogs); (12) Lalagobatrachia is composed of two clades, Xenoanura (Pipidae and Rhinophrynidae) and Sokolanura new taxon (all other lalagobatrachians); (13) Bombinatoridae and Alytidae (former Discoglossidae) are each others' closest relatives and in a clade called Costata, which, excluding Leiopelmatidae and Xenoanura, forms the sister taxon of all other frogs, Acosmanura; (14) Acosmanura is composed of two clades, Anomocoela (5 Pelobatoidea of other authors) and Neobatrachia; (15) Anomocoela contains Pelobatoidea (Pelobatidae and Megophryidae) and Pelodytoidea (Pelodytidae and Scaphiopodidae), and forms the sister taxon of Neobatrachia, together forming Acosmanura; (16) Neobatrachia is composed of two clades, Heleophrynidae, and all other neobatrachians, Phthanobatrachia new taxon; (17) Phthanobatrachia is composed of two major units, Hyloides and Ranoides; (18) Hyloides comprises Sooglossidae (including Nasikabatrachidae) and Notogaeanura new taxon (the remaining hyloids); (19) Notogaeanura contains two taxa, Australobatrachia new taxon and Nobleobatrachia new taxon; (20) Australobatrachia is a clade composed of Batrachophrynidae and its sister taxon, Myobatrachoidea (Myobatrachidae and Limnodynastidae), which forms the sister taxon of all other hyloids, excluding sooglossids; (21) Nobleobatrachia new taxon, is dominated at its base by frogs of a treefrog morphotype, several with intercalary phalangeal cartilages--Hemiphractus (Hemiphractidae) forms the sister taxon of the remaining members of this group, here termed Meridianura new taxon; (22) Meridianura comprises Brachycephalidae (former Eleutherodactylinae + Brachycephalus) and Cladophrynia new taxon; (23) Cladophrynia is composed of two groups, Cryptobatrachidae (composed of Cryptobatrachus and Stefania, previously a fragment of the polyphyletic Hemiphractinae) and Tinctanura new taxon; (24) Tinctanura is composed of Amphignathodontidae (Gastrotheca and Flectonotus, another fragment of the polyphyletic Hemiphractinae) and Athesphatanura new taxon; (25) Athesphatanura is composed of Hylidae (Hylinae, Pelodryadinae, and Phyllomedusinae, and excluding former Hemiphractinae, whose inclusion would have rendered this taxon polyphyletic) and Leptodactyliformes new taxon; (26) Leptodactyliformes is composed of Diphyabatrachia new taxon (composed of Centrolenidae (including Allophryne) and Leptodactylidae, sensu stricto, including Leptodactylus and relatives) and Chthonobatrachia new taxon; (27) Chthonobatrachia is composed of a reformulated Ceratophryidae (which excludes such genera as Odontophrynus and Proceratophrys and includes other taxa, such as Telmatobius) and Hesticobatrachia new taxon; (28) Hesticobatrachia is composed of a reformulated Cycloramphidae (which includes Rhinoderma) and Agastorophrynia new taxon; (29) Agastorophrynia is composed of Bufonidae (which is partially revised) and Dendrobatoidea (Dendrobatidae and Thoropidae); (30) Ranoides new taxon forms the sister taxon of Hyloides and is composed of two major monophyletic components, Allodapanura new taxon (microhylids, hyperoliids, and allies) and Natatanura new taxon (ranids and allies); (31) Allodapanura is composed of Microhylidae (which is partially revised) and Afrobatrachia new taxon; (32) Afrobatrachia is composed of Xenosyneunitanura new taxon (the 'strange-bedfellows' Brevicipitidae (formerly in Microhylidae) and Hemisotidae) and a more normal-looking group of frogs, Laurentobatrachia new taxon (Hyperoliidae and Arthroleptidae, which includes Leptopelinae and former Astylosternidae); (33) Natatanura new taxon is composed of two taxa, the African Ptychadenidae and the worldwide Victoranura new taxon; (34) Victoranura is composed of Ceratobatrachidae and Telmatobatrachia new taxon; (35) Telmatobatrachia is composed of Micrixalidae and a worldwide group of ranoids, Ametrobatrachia new taxon; (36) Ametrobatrachia is composed of Africanura new taxon and Saukrobatrachia new taxon; (37) Africanura is composed of two taxa: Phrynobatrachidae (Phrynobatrachus, including Dimorphognathus and Phrynodon as synonyms) and Pyxicephaloidea; (38) Pyxicephaloidea is composed of Petropedetidae (Conraua, Indirana, Arthroleptides, and Petropedetes), and Pyxicephalidae (including a number of African genera, e.g. Amietia (including Afrana), Arthroleptella, Pyxicephalus, Strongylopus, and Tomopterna); and (39) Saukrobatrachia new taxon is the sister taxon of Africanura and is composed of Dicroglossidae and Aglaioanura new taxon, which is, in turn, composed of Rhacophoroidea (Mantellidae and Rhacophoridae) and Ranoidea (Nyctibatrachidae and Ranidae, sensu stricto). Many generic revisions are made either to render a monophyletic taxonomy or to render a taxonomy that illuminates the problems in our understanding of phylogeny, so that future work will be made easier. These revisions are: (1) placement of Ixalotriton and Lineatriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Bolitoglossinae) into the synonymy of Pseudoeurycea, to render a monophyletic Pseudoeurycea; (2) placement of Haideotriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Spelerpinae) into the synonymy of Eurycea, to render a monophyletic Eurycea; (3) placement of Nesomantis (Anura: Sooglossidae) into the synonymy of Sooglossus, to assure a monophyletic Sooglossus; (4) placement of Cyclorana and Nyctimystes (Anura: Hylidae: Pelodryadinae) into Litoria, but retaining Cyclorana as a subgenus, to provide a monophyletic Litoria; (5) partition of 'Limnodynastes' (Anura: Limnodynastidae) into Limnodynastes and Opisthodon to render monophyletic genera; (6) placement of Adenomera, Lithodytes, and Vanzolinius (Anura: Leptodactylidae) into Leptodactylus, to render a monophyletic Leptodactylus; (7) partition of 'Eleutherodactylus' (Anura: Brachycephalidae) into Craugastor, 'Eleutherodactylus', 'Euhyas', 'Pelorius', and Syrrhophus to outline the taxonomic issues relevant to the paraphyly of this nominal taxon to other nominal genera; (8) partition of 'Bufo' (Anura: Bufonidae) into a number of new or revived genera (i.e., Amietophrynus new genus, Anaxyrus, Chaunus, Cranopsis, Duttaphrynus new genus, Epidalea, Ingerophrynus new genus, Nannophryne, Peltophryne, Phrynoidis, Poyntonophrynus new genus; Pseudepidalea new genus, Rhaebo, Rhinella, Vandijkophrynus new genus); (9) placement of the monotypic Spinophrynoides (Anura: Bufonidae) into the synonymy of (formerly monotypic) Altiphrynoides to make for a more informative taxonomy; (10) placement of the Bufo taitanus group and Stephopaedes (as a subgenus) into the synonymy of Mertensophryne (Anura: Bufonidae); (11) placement of Xenobatrachus (Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae) into the synonymy of Xenorhina to render a monophyletic Xenorhina; (12) transfer of a number of species from Plethodontohyla to Rhombophryne (Microhylidae: Cophylinae) to render a monophyletic Plethodontohyla; (13) placement of Schoutedenella (Anura: Arthroleptidae) into the synonymy of Arthroleptis; (14) transfer of Dimorphognathus and Phrynodon (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae) into the synonymy of Phrynobatrachus to render a monophyletic Phrynobatrachus; (15) placement of Afrana into the synonymy of Amietia (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) to render a monophyletic taxon; (16) placement of Chaparana and Paa into the synonymy of Nanorana (Anura: Dicroglossidae) to render a monophyletic genus; (17) recognition as genera of Ombrana and Annandia (Anura: Dicroglossidae: Dicroglossinae) pending placement of them phylogenetically; (18) return of Phrynoglossus into the synonymy of Occidozyga to resolve the paraphyly of Phrynoglossus (Anura: Dicroglossidae: Occidozyginae); (19) recognition of Feihyla new genus for Philautus palpebralis to resolve the polyphyly of ''Chirixalus''; (20) synonymy of 'Chirixalus' with Chiromantis to resolve the paraphyly of 'Chirixalus'; (21) recognition of the genus Babina, composed of the former subgenera of Rana, Babina and Nidirana (Anura: Ranidae); (22) recognition of the genera Clinotarsus, Humerana, Nasirana, Pelophylax, Pterorana, Pulchrana, and Sanguirana, formerly considered subgenera of Rana (Anura: Ranidae), with no special relationship to Rana (sensu stricto); (23) consideration of Glandirana (Anura: Ranidae), formerly a subgenus of Rana, as a genus, with Rugosa as a synonym; (24) recognition of Hydrophylax (Anura: Ranidae) as a genus, with Amnirana and most species of former Chalcorana included in this taxon as synonyms; (25) recognition of Hylarana (Anura: Ranidae) as a genus and its content redefined; (26) redelimitation of Huia to include as synonyms Eburana and Odorrana (both former subgenera of Rana); (27) recognition of Lithobates (Anura: Ranidae) for all species of North American 'Rana' not placed in Rana sensu stricto (Aquarana, Pantherana, Sierrana, Trypheropsis, and Zweifelia considered synonyms of Lithobates); (28) redelimitation of the genus Rana as monophyletic by inclusion as synonyms Amerana, Aurorana, Pseudoamolops, and Pseudorana, and exclusion of all other former subgenera; (29) redelimitation of the genus Sylvirana (Anura: Ranidae), formerly a subgenus of Rana, with Papurana and Tylerana included as synonyms"